Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Sustainable Higher Education Reform Quality Assessment Using SWOT Analysis with Integration of AHP and Entropy Models: A Case Study of Morocco


Sustainable development goals (SDG) involve not only environmental issues but also economic, social, and cultural concerns. Higher education plays a key role in promoting sustainable development initiatives and in empowering people to change their thinking and to strive for a sustainable future. However, the main issue that needs to be presently resolved is how leaders, teachers, and students in higher education can achieve sustainable development in their system vision, mission and values, strategic plans, and organizational culture. Morocco is a country with a long history of higher education and has continuous reforms for sustainable development. In the process of responding to the wave of globalization, the Moroccan government has begun to formulate a higher education reform plan to maintain its competitiveness and achieve the SDG standards. Therefore, this study is focused on the quality of the higher education system through which the sustainability of higher education reform can be implemented. With this in mind, an organized approach that involved a questionnaire using the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) decision-making model with integration of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Entropy method was developed. The questionnaires were filled out by the experts, staff, and students of the higher education system (universities) to obtain the important key factors for the SWOT analysis. The AHP was used for the qualitative analysis of the weights of the SWOT factors, while the Entropy method was applied for the objective analysis of the number of different weight attributes. After integration of AHP with Entropy, the finalized variables were ranked; these results are more reliable and realistic to decision-makers. Finally, the SWOT matrix was established based on the questionnaire assessment and the AHP with Entropy weights to help implement the higher education reform policy and to monitor the quality of the current education system. The results also indicate that higher education reform must incorporate many changes, including effective budget planning, skilled experts, internationalization, improved and expanded infrastructure, reformed study curriculum, and latest training.
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